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Diabetes and under-resourced populations: European and Asian perspectives

In the second part of our series on diabetes and under-resourced populations, Dr Susan Aldridge reports on two presentations from the EASD 2022 conference, which explored the particular challenges and solutions prevailing in Europe and Asia. Europe: Challenges beyond access Dr Tsvetalina Tankova, Professor of Endocrinology, Medical University, Sofia, reviewed some of the diabetes figures […]



Diabetes and health inequalities: the view from America

Under-resourced populations bear the biggest burden of diabetes – and are set to bear the brunt of the alarming rise in diabetes prevalence. In the first of a two-part series posting on Horizons this week, Dr Susan Aldridge reports on presentations from three speakers at the EASD 2022 meeting who discussed the challenges faced in […]



Not sure which therapy is best? Let the patient choose!

Analysis of a patient-preference study revealed its efficacy for people with type 2 diabetes at the latest EASD Annual Meeting. Lisa Buckingham reports. Recent guidelines from the ADA/EASD have emphasised the importance of a patient-centred approach to type 2 diabetes treatment, said Beverley Shields, a statistician from the University of Exeter. She highlighted the section […]



Early life infections raise the risk of beta cell autoimmunity

A new paper in Diabetologia does not support the hypothesis that exposure to viral infection in the first year of life may trigger beta cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Instead, the study finds that it is bacterial infections that increase this risk, possibly through an effect on the gut microbiome. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. […]



Does taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages work?

Tackling sugar intake is a key part of reducing the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, but how best to do it? Evidence for the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages was presented at the recent EASD Annual Meeting. Lisa Buckingham reports. We know that unhealthy diets are a major risk factor for obesity and many other diseases, […]



Depression in young-onset type 2 diabetes

Depression is more common in those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes under the age of 40 than those diagnosed later in life. These findings from UK and USA data, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, highlight the need for clinicians to screen for depression, particularly in younger people diagnosed with type 2. Dr Susan […]



What role do epigenetic changes play in type 2 diabetes?

The epigenome plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression, cell differentiation and X-chromosome inactivation – and can contribute to disease when dysfunctional. In her new module for EASD e-Learning, Professor Charlotte Ling explores the ways in which epigenetic modifications contribute to type 2 diabetes. As a principal investigator in the Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit […]



Can remission of type 2 diabetes last?

Remission of type 2 diabetes is now seen as a real alternative to a lifetime of medication and worry about complications. The down side is that it may not last, and the issue of relapse was in the spotlight at the Diabetologia symposium on remission at EASD 2022. Relapse of type 2 diabetes is currently […]



The battle against diabetes stigma goes on

A fascinating insight into diabetes stigma and how it can be tackled was presented at the recent EASD conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. Dr Noriko Kodani from the National Centre of Global Health and Medicine in Japan described how her own diagnosis of type 1 diabetes after the birth of her daughter and how that drove […]



Diabetes detritus and climate change

As the world looks towards urgent discussions at the COP27 meeting, we need to acknowledge the significant impact healthcare makes to climate change through the generation of waste. In recognition of this, the environmental impact of diabetes care was discussed for the first time at the EASD’s recent annual meeting. Healthcare systems contribute over 4% […]



RCP approves EASD e-Learning modules for continuous professional development

Accreditation for 14 EASD e-Learning modules by the Federation of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the UK (RCP) mean that learners now have even more opportunities to earn continuous professional development points on the EASD e-Learning platform. Starting this week, 14 EASD e-Learning modules will carry statements indicating that they have been accredited for […]



Does resilience affect HbA1c?

Being able to identify early the patients who may struggle more with a diabetes diagnosis is increasingly seen as a key aspect of care. Work to further our understanding of this was presented at the recent EASD Annual Meeting. Lisa Buckingham reports. There are many definitions of psychological resilience but the one that Dr Simon […]



Spotlight on online peer support at the EASD conference

Online peer support was highlighted at EASD 2022, as diabetes advocates from around the world presented some of the work of the #dedoc° Diabetes Online Community and discussed their response to the pandemic. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Professor Chantal Mathieu, President Elect of EASD, welcomed a group of diabetes advocates from #dedoc° to a full […]



44 years of the UKPDS

The importance of maintaining normal glycaemia in type 2 diabetes from the day of diagnosis was underlined by the presentation of long-term findings from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) at EASD 2022. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. The UKPDS was launched in 1977 by Professor Robert Turner and his team at the John Radcliffe Infirmary […]



Screening children for the early stages of type 1 diabetes

A new study reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia identifies children in the general population in Germany who have presymptomatic type 1 diabetes and estimates their risk of going on to develop clinical diabetes. The findings could help more children benefit from preventive immunotherapy with teplizumab. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Type 1 diabetes can […]



HIIT back at diabetes

Research that furthers our understanding of the health benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) was presented at the 58th EASD Annual Meeting. Lisa Buckingham reports. HIIT is increasingly coming under the spotlight as an effective tool in the fight against diabetes and obesity. As part of an Exercise Your Tissues into Shape session at September’s […]



Personalising prevention for type 2 diabetes

As rates of type 2 diabetes continue to rise around the world, prevention of the condition has never been more important. A review in a recent issue of Diabetologia looks at the opportunities and challenges offered by a personalised approach to type 2 diabetes prevention. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. It is 25 years since randomised […]



You said, we did

Learner feedback helps to ensure that the EASD e-Learning programme is up to date, evidence based and meets the needs of learners. It is also important that learners know their feedback is taken seriously. Suzie Normanton, EASD e-Learning’s Accreditation and Feedback Lead reports on the feedback we’ve received over recent months – and what’s been […]



SGLT-2 inhibitors – pros and cons

SGLT-2 inhibitors are now recommended as first-line therapy for people with type 2 diabetes who have had a previous cardiovascular event. However, there are concerns over a few safety issues associated with these relatively new medications. A new analysis of recent clinical trials, published in a recent issue of Diabetologia, concludes that, overall, the benefits […]



Back to live: EASD celebrates live conference return

The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) welcomed delegates to Stockholm in September, with its first in-person conference for three years. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. After a two-year hiatus due to COVID-19, EASD 2022 attracted nearly 8000 ‘live’ participants, while more than 3000 joined the hybrid meeting online. In his opening address, EASD […]



Prevention of type 2 diabetes in the Middle East and North Africa

There are particularly high rates of type 2 diabetes in the Middle East and North Africa region. Experts from these countries gathered at a special IDF meeting recently to discuss how to address this huge challenge through screening and prevention efforts. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) states that there is a 10.5% prevalence of diabetes […]



Time-restricted eating shows benefit in type 2 diabetes

Modern lifestyles tend to preclude a prolonged fast during the night, with food being consumed over a long time period, which may have a detrimental effect on metabolic health. A new study, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, shows that eating within a time window of ten hours can help improve glycaemic control in […]



False starts and lizard spit: how incretin-based medications broke through

In a welcome return for ‘The briefing room’, a group of diabetes research luminaries examine the rise to prominence of medications that work by stimulating receptors for GIP and GLP-1 – and where things may be headed next. “The GIP story is a real rollercoaster,” says Professor Cliff Bailey. “Although GIP originally stood for gastric inhibitory […]



Comorbidities in type 1 diabetes

Many people with diabetes have to cope with the significant health challenges presented by living with more than one chronic condition. To launch EASD e-Learning’s new course on conditions commonly associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, Professor Bruce Wolffenbuttel’s module focuses on comorbidities in type 1 diabetes. Comorbidities in type 1 diabetes – not only […]



Optimising heart failure therapies

Recent clinical trial data have led to new guidelines on managing heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, which promise to add years of life for people with the condition, many of whom also have diabetes. The need to adopt the Four Pillars of these new guidelines without delay was under discussion at the recent ADA […]



Heart failure and the cost-of-living crisis

The cost-of-living crisis being experienced around the world is not just about energy and food prices. It also encompasses access to healthcare and affordability of therapies. According to findings presented at the recent ADA Scientific Sessions, these costs are hitting people with heart failure hard, particularly those in lower socioeconomic classes, who are already disproportionately […]



A new look for EASD e-Learning

A refreshed version of the EASD e-Learning website launches this week, with a cleaner, more user-friendly design. As part of a wide-ranging redesign, changes to EASD e-Learning’s site navigation make it easier for learners to access the different types of information they want, to identify the experts who have contributed to a specific course, and […]



Paradigm shifts: scientific papers that changed the diabetes world

In a new series of films on Horizons, leading researchers and clinicians from around the world talk about the journal articles that have left a deep impression on their understanding and practice in the field of diabetes. Scientific discovery is a slow, painstaking business. Eureka moments are few and far between. Even so, it’s the […]



What role for intermittent fasting in obesity treatment?

It’s an increasingly popular way to lose weight and improve health, but which intermittent fasting method should we be prescribing to patients with overweight and obesity? This question was addressed at the ADA’s latest conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. As we battle the obesity pandemic, intermittent fasting (IF) has been cited as a potentially valuable tool. […]



Focus on hormone and symptom responses in hypoglycaemia

A new review, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, looks at glycaemic thresholds for the appearance of the signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia in people with and without type 1 diabetes. These appear at lower glucose levels for people with diabetes and, also of note, the thresholds for appearance of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms […]



Osteoporosis – an overlooked complication of diabetes?

Falls and fractures are more common among people with diabetes, with osteoporosis likely the underlying cause. Bone health, therefore, was under discussion at the ‘complications compendium’ session at the recent American Diabetes Association (ADA) Scientific Session. Dr Susan Aldridge reports back. The World Health Organisation defines osteoporosis as a ‘systematic skeletal disease characterised by low […]



Diabetes worsens COVID-19 prognosis

Previous research has shown that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 infection. However, we don’t know if this increased risk arises from diabetes itself or its associated comorbidities, such as obesity and heart disease – or whether both are important. A new analysis, reported in […]



Weighing up the transplant options

In his new module for EASD e-Learning, Professor Eelco de Koning considers the various options available for restoring normal glucose regulation by replacing insulin-producing cells – whether through islets or whole pancreas transplantation. Eelco de Koning, Professor of Diabetology at Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands, is in no doubt about the challenges posed by […]



Sedentary behaviour in pregnancy

The impact of sedentary behaviour in pregnancy and how to address it was a hot topic at the ADA’s latest conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. Light-intensity physical activity (PA) and its health benefits is a growing area of research.  Compared with formal exercise and moderate/vigorous-intensity exercise, it’s a topic we have much to learn about, according […]



Single-cell RNA sequencing – a new tool for islet research

Revealing the transcriptome of each pancreatic islet cell type could take us a long way towards clarifying the underlying mechanisms of type 2 diabetes. Single-cell RNA sequencing offers this level of genetic information and the opportunities and challenges posed by this emerging technology are discussed in a recent paper in Diabetologia. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. The […]



Obesity management in type 2 diabetes – the role of medication

Thanks to the GLP-1 receptor agonists and newer, related drugs, it’s now possible to go beyond the traditional glucocentric model of diabetes treatment and address obesity too. The implications of this new approach, and the latest findings on anti-obesity medication, were under discussion at the recent ADA conference, as Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Given that […]



Obstructive sleep apnoea in type 1 diabetes

Obstructive sleep apnoea, with its various health consequences, is more common among people with type 2 diabetes than those without the condition. A new study, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, finds that those with type 1 are also more at risk of this common sleep disorder, with autonomic neuropathy possibly playing a role, […]



Obesity management in type 2 diabetes – the role of surgery

Bariatric surgery can lead to health benefits in type 2 diabetes that go way beyond weight loss and remission. The latest findings in this area were presented at the recent ADA conference, making a strong case for using surgery to tackle diabetes and obesity. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Addressing the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Scientific […]



Intermittent glucose monitoring in pregnancy

A new study in a recent issue of Diabetologia compares intermittent (flash) glucose monitoring with finger-prick testing in a group of pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. While flash did improve glycaemic control for a while, this was not sustained, and it was also linked to an increased risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Dr Susan Aldridge […]



Behavioural counselling and pharmacotherapy: a potent combination

Counselling and pharmacotherapy can each of them aid weight loss in people with obesity. So what happens when you combine the two? Lisa Buckingham reports on the case for pairing these interventions, as presented at the ADA’s 82nd Scientific Sessions. “Why would you consider this pairing?” asked Dr Scott Kahan, director of the National Centre […]



Spotlight on tirzepatide

Tirzepatide is a new class of drug for management of type 2 diabetes. A meta-analysis of its glucose-lowering and weight-loss effects, presented in a recent issue of Diabetologia, will help guide treatment decisions ahead of its imminent approval for clinical use. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), the two main incretin hormones, are […]



Diabetes, lifestyle and dementia risk

Diabetes is one established risk factor for dementia among many others, so what kind of interventions can reduce risk? This question was addressed at the ADA’s latest conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias present a significant and growing health burden. In the USA, about a third of people will have dementia […]



Low- and middle-income countries bear the brunt of type 2 diabetes

A new analysis of the Global Burden of Disease study, presented in a recent issue of Diabetologia, reveals the geographical variation of type 2 diabetes and how risk factors for the associated morbidity and mortality play out in different countries. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Economic development and improvement in healthcare have led to a decrease […]



Beta cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes

The centrality of disrupted beta cell function to type 1 diabetes is widely understood. Less commonly appreciated is the vital part it plays in type 2 – a role that takes centre stage in Professor Hindrik Mulder’s new module. In his module ‘Stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic beta cells’, the first in EASD e-Learning’s new course […]



Food insecurity and its impact on young people with diabetes

Food insecurity is prevalent across the globe, with far-reaching consequences for people’s health and well-being – consequences that can be significantly exacerbated for young people with diabetes. A session at last month’s ADA conference looked at how we might address them. Lisa Buckingham reports. Food insecurity (FI) is defined as limited or uncertain availability of […]



Do statins really cause diabetes?

Statins are often prescribed to people with diabetes to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease. But some clinical trials have reported cases of new-onset diabetes among statin users. Dr Susan Aldridge reports on discussions of this key safety issue at the recent American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions. Since 1994, there have been many randomised clinical […]



Plant-based eating and diabetes

Plant-based eating is a hot topic and ‘Just how plant-based should people with diabetes go?’ was a question addressed at the ADA’s latest conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. Speaking at the American Diabetes Association’s (ADA) 82nd Scientific Sessions in June, Qi Sun, associate professor at Harvard Medical School, put forward the case for plant-based eating plans […]



Dealing with insulin allergy

Insulin allergy can cause significant challenges in diabetes treatment. A new paper in Diabetologia discusses the diagnosis and management of this rare, but important, condition. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Insulin allergy is rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.1 to 3%. But that amounts to 800,000 cases worldwide, so it’s a problem of clinical significance […]



Diabetes technology: who benefits and how?

For the latest in our series ‘The long and the short of it’, renowned psychologists with a specialism in diabetes, Professors Bill Polonsky (University of California, USA) and Frank Snoek (Amsterdam University Medical Center, Netherlands) discuss the psychosocial aspects of diabetes technology. Recent decades have revolutionised what’s possible in diabetes self management with the arrival […]



Sweeteners, weight and metabolic health

Low-calorie sweeteners were under the spotlight at the ADA’s 82nd Scientific Sessions. Lisa Buckingham reports. Part of the global effort to tackle obesity is aimed at reducing the rates of sugar consumption – an undertaking in which low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) already play a big role. The market for LCS was worth 16.5 billion US dollars […]



Kidney-function measure linked to worsening retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

A new analysis from the Adolescent Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, shows that higher urinary albumin/creatinine ratio – even within the normal range – is associated with progression of diabetic retinopathy in young people with type 1 diabetes. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in the upper tertile […]



You said, we did

Learner feedback helps to ensure that the EASD e-Learning programme is up to date, evidence based and meets the needs of learners. It is also important that learners know their feedback is taken seriously. Dr Gillian Manning, EASD e-Learning’s Clinical Education Lead, reports on the feedback we’ve received over recent months – and what’s been […]



Statins in type 1 diabetes

Lowering LDL cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular risk is strongly recommended for people with type 1 diabetes. A new risk score to guide statin prescribing was under discussion at the recent at the recent American Diabetes Association (ADA) Scientific Sessions. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Cardiovascular risk is two to five times higher in people with type […]



Support, empower, educate

Patient education and support are crucial for effective diabetes management, right? So far, so uncontroversial – but what should that education encompass? Who should provide it, where and when? These are just some of the questions addressed in our latest module. In his new module, An introduction to patient education in diabetes, which launches this […]



Diabetes heterogeneity in the spotlight

The traditional classification of diabetes, which assigns most cases as type 1 and type 2, fails to capture the complexity of the condition. The latest research on clustering and subtyping, presented at the recent American Diabetes Association (ADA) Scientific Sessions, advances our understanding of the underlying pathology and promises to improve diabetes diagnosis and treatment. […]



Study highlights wide-ranging kidney benefits of dapagliflozin

A new study, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, shows that dapagliflozin benefits people across a wide range of kidney disease severity. The findings, based on an analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial, taken with data from other studies, provide compelling evidence for the initiation of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients across the spectrum with chronic […]



The impact of structured exercise in type 1 diabetes

Monitoring exercise using wearable technology can help people with type 1 diabetes enjoy more benefit from being active, by clarifying the many factors affecting glycaemic response. Professor Mike Riddell of the Muscle Health Research Centre at York University, Toronto, presented some promising preliminary results from the Type 1 Diabetes Exercise Initiative (T1DEXI project) at the […]



Precision monitoring in diabetes

Combining data from continuous glucose monitoring with self-care and mental health data could help improve diabetes care. A new review in Diabetologia looks at the emerging area of precision monitoring. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Glucose monitoring to help achieve treatment goals is at the heart of diabetes management. It has long been known that glucose […]



Tackling diabetes distress and depression

In the latest episode of The long and the short of it, professors Larry Fisher and Frank Snoek get to grips with some of the emotional aspects of living with diabetes – focusing on diabetes distress and depression. One of the first points Professors Frank Snoek (Amsterdam University Medical Centre, Netherlands) and Larry Fisher (University […]



Type 1 diabetes: where next for arrest and prevention?

Type 1 diabetes is complex and heterogenous, but research and clinical trials show there are ways of preventing or arresting the condition. Chantal Mathieu, Professor of Internal Medicine at KU Leuven, Belgium (and EASD Senior Vice-President), shared the latest findings at the recent Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) meeting in Barcelona. Dr Susan […]



Pharmacoepigenetics for type 2 diabetes

Recent research suggests that pharmacoepigenetics may have clinical relevance in type 2 diabetes, from predicting who will respond to diabetes drugs to developing innovative therapies targeting epigenetic enzymes. In a recent issue of Diabetologia, Professor Charlotte Ling, Principal Investigator at the Epigenetics and Diabetes Unit, Lund University Diabetes Centre, presented the latest research in this […]



Insulin in type 2 diabetes: best practice

Supporting people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes was the focus of this year’s Janet Kinson lecture at the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. In the past, type 2 diabetes was treated as mild and not thought to be associated with diabetes complications – clearly not the case, said Dr Kirsty Winkley, Reader […]



Accessing new diabetes technologies: who decides – and how?

An eye-opening presentation about how diabetes technologies are allocated was given at the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. Why does such inequitable access to technologies exist between socioeconomic and ethnic groups in the UK, asked Julia Lawton, Professor of Health and Social Science at the University of Edinburgh, at the beginning of […]



Safer pilgrimage in the pandemic age

In our latest module, Professor Hinde Iraqi sets out the steps healthcare professionals should take to support safe pilgrimage for their Muslim patients with diabetes in the era of COVID-19. Performing Hajj – a pilgrimage to Mecca – at least once in your lifetime is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. As the largest […]



Obesity, type 2 diabetes and eating disorders in young people

With obesity and type 2 diabetes on the rise in young people, safe and effective treatment is vital. A session at the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference explored the latest thinking. Lisa Buckingham reports. Prior to the pandemic, rates of paediatric obesity were plateauing in most high income countries but COVID-19 meant that rates started […]



Reducing heart risk with omega-3s

Even on statins, people with diabetes are still at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). But lipid management can be improved, to optimise outcomes, by adding omega-3 fatty acids, according to results presented at the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference.  Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Clinical trials on statins support low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) as a risk […]



COVID-19, diabetes and ethnic minority groups

Much as they do for diabetes, biological, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors combined to worsen COVID-19 prevalence and outcomes in ethnic minority groups – according to Professor Kamlesh Khunti in his Arnold Bloom lecture at the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference. Lisa Buckingham reports on his personal account of what was learned and what action needs […]



Drugs that cause diabetes

Steroids, antipsychotics, antiretroviral therapy for HIV and immune checkpoint inhibitors against cancer: all of these may cause diabetes. A new review in Diabetologia looks at these four classes of diabetogenic drugs and advises careful selection and monitoring to reduce the risk. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Various drugs commonly used in clinical practice can cause hyperglycaemia […]



Type 2 diabetes complications in primary care

The complications of type 2 diabetes need more attention in primary care. In the latest installment in our series The long and the short of it, we hear about what needs to be looked for, how best to do it and what are the most effective interventions. “It’s really about starting with weight loss – […]



Diabetes and suicide

Rates of depression are two to three times higher in people with diabetes than in the general population and, for some, this increases the risk of suicide, suicide ideation and self-harm. Dr Susan Aldridge reports on the RESCUE Collaborative Community, a new global initiative to address these important and sensitive issues, which was presented at […]



100 years of the insulin market

If you’ve been following our Insulin in my country series, you might be interested in a commentary on the insulin market – past, present and future – which appears in a recent issue of Diabetologia. Dr Susan Aldridge reports.  Following the discovery of insulin by Frederick Banting and Charles Best in 1921, the Insulin Committee […]



How can we tackle weight discrimination?

Clear strategies are needed for addressing it effectively and ending it for good. At the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference, Dr Paul Chadwick looked at our efforts so far and outlined what needs to be done. Lisa Buckingham reports. Weight discrimination is a social justice issue, said Dr Paul Chadwick, deputy director at the UCL […]



Targeting problematic hypoglycaemia

Understanding the psychology of severe hypos that are driven by hypoglycaemia unawareness could go a long way to alleviating this common complication of insulin therapy. A new paper in Diabetologia describes the emotional, cognitive and behavioural characteristics of participants in the HARPdoc trial, which is evaluating a novel intervention for problematic hypoglycaemia. Dr Susan Aldridge […]



What does the growth in early-onset type 2 diabetes mean for future multimorbidities?

For the first time, the National Diabetes Audit has recorded those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before the age of 40. Speaking at last month’s Diabetes UK’s Annual Professional Conference, Dr Shivani Misra asked whether this early-onset type 2 diabetes has a more aggressive pathophysiology that puts those affected at higher risk of multimorbidity. Dr […]



Weight stigma and why it needs to stop now

Being exposed to weight stigma is highly detrimental to the mental and physical health of people living with overweight and obesity, and healthcare professionals are often the culprits. This burgeoning issue was addressed at the recent Diabetes UK Professional Conference. Lisa Buckingham reports. The session opened with a presentation from Sarah Le Brocq, director of […]



What are the causes of type 2 diabetes – and can we reverse it?

The association between weight and type 2 diabetes has long been a focal point for enquiry into diabetes prevention and treatment. But a recent series of groundbreaking studies from Professor Roy Taylor – as detailed in our latest e-Learning module – have elicited exciting new insights into this relationship, even demonstrating that significant numbers of […]



Diabetes and cancer

More and more data is emerging about the complex links between diabetes and cancer. Dr Susan Aldridge reports on some of the new research in this area presented at Diabetes UK’s recent Annual Professional Conference. Researchers at the University of Bristol have been using genome screening to identify the underlying biological factors in the two […]



COVID-19 – time to move on?

The threat posed by COVID-19 may be receding, but the diabetes pandemic rages on and now requires our full attention, according to an opinion piece in a recent issue of Diabetologia. A study in the same issue reports that COVID-19 itself could add to the diabetes burden by triggering cases of new-onset type 2. While […]



Why have a psychologist in a diabetic foot clinic?

In a presentation at this month’s Diabetes UK Professional Conference, a psychologist working within a diabetic foot clinic outlined her role and why all clinics should have one. Lisa Buckingham reports. ‘I often joke that medics look at the feet and psychologists look at the person attached to the feet,’ said Catherine Bewsey, chartered counselling […]



Cholesterol, the retina and diabetic eye disease

A new review in Diabetologia shines a light on the complex relationship between lipid lowering and diabetic retinopathy. Further understanding of retinal cholesterol metabolism, including the formation of cholesterol crystals, could help develop new sight-preserving therapies for people with diabetes. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Various studies have looked at the link between lipid profiles, lipid-lowering […]



Is precision prevention the way forward for gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes can have a serious impact on the health of both mother and baby. But according to a recent review in Diabetologia,there is scope now for a more precise approach to its prevention based on interventions tailored to a woman’s individual risk. Dr Susan Aldridge takes a closer look. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects […]



Early warning: epigenetic changes are earliest sign of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes may begin with DNA changes that influence gene expression, according to a report in a recent paper in Diabetologia from researchers in Finland. And detection of this epigenetic signature could lead to better prediction and management of the condition. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Type 1 diabetes is a complex autoimmune disease with […]



EASD calling for new PGE committee members

Educational activities have been a core priority of the EASD since its foundation, but recent years have seen those activities expand significantly in number and variety. To help guide the future delivery of its educational activities, the EASD is looking for new members of its post-graduate education committee. The aim of the EASD’s post-graduate education […]



Precision medicine and health inequalities

An overemphasis upon biomedical science could prevent precision medicine from addressing health inequalities fully. As researchers try to move away from ‘one size fits all’ in healthcare, in a recent issue of Diabetologia historian Arleen Tuchman makes a plea for more emphasis upon the social determinants of health. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. We all agree […]



Children at risk: diagnosis and treatment of paediatric DKA

In the latest EASD e-Learning module launching today, three leading paediatric diabetologists outline key issues around the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. A girl presents in the emergency room (ER) with stomach pains. Her stomach being very flat and hard, she is diagnosed as having appendicitis and duly operated on. […]



Prediabetes linked to multiple health problems

A review in a recent issue of Diabetologia suggests there is more to prediabetes than just an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Impaired glucose metabolism in prediabetes is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia, meaning it should perhaps be taken more seriously. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Prediabetes […]



Could a natural light cycle reduce type 2 diabetes risk?

Modern lifestyles may have a detrimental effect on metabolism through exposure to bright and dim light at times that are out of sync with natural day-night rhythms. A study reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia looks at the impact of different light levels during daytime and evening upon people with insulin resistance. Dr Susan […]



Low-carbohydrate diet benefits glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes

Restricting carbohydrate reduces HbA1cand glucose variability more than a conventional weight-loss diet does, according to a study from researchers in Denmark published in a recent issue of Diabetologia. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Weight loss has many health benefits for people with type 2 diabetes, including improved glycaemic control and lipid metabolism, which may reduce the […]



Sexual dysfunction in women: ignored for too long

So many aspects of care are covered in diabetes clinics, but sexual dysfunction is rarely catered for. The problem and how to address it was discussed at the International Diabetes Federation Middle East and North Africa Congress 2021 (IDF MENA). Lisa Buckingham reports. Shabeen Naz Masood is a professor and the head of department of […]



Insulin analogues in pregnancy

We’ve come a long way in improving pregnancy outcomes for women with type 1 diabetes, but research continues and drug companies are advancing their insulin offerings. In the latest episode in our [email protected] series, Professor Elisabeth Mathieson outlines what we’ve discovered about insulin analogues during pregnancy in the past 20 years and and what the recent EXPECT trial […]



Cardiovascular risk-prediction tools fall short in type 2 diabetes

A new study, reported in Diabetologia in January, tested the performance of 22 cardiovascular risk scores in primary care data from people with type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest these tools do not provide an accurate guide to prevention and treatment decisions. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the main cause of morbidity […]



New guidelines to combat inertia in gestational diabetes

Early gestational diabetes and new screening recommendations were among the issues addressed in the Diabetes and Pregnancy session at the recent International Diabetes Federation Middle East and North Africa (IDF MENA) Congress. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is usually diagnosed during the second trimester of pregnancy, between 24 and 28 weeks. But Viswanathan Mohan, Chairman of Dr […]



The eyes - ‘a window to diabetes complications’

Dr Kevin Fernando, GP Partner and Educational Supervisor, North Berwick Health Centre, and Scottish Lead of the Primary Care Diabetes Society, shared some tips on detecting diabetic eye problems – and related issues – at the Society’s recent conference. Dr Fernando began his presentation with this key message: “A person with diabetes complaining of acute […]



Can we prevent type 1 diabetes?

One hundred years since the first insulin injection, do recent research findings mean there will be no need for this lifesaving medicine in the future? Speaking at the recent International Diabetes Federation Middle East and North Africa (IDF MENA) Congress, Professor Colin Dayan of Cardiff University School of Medicine, reviewed recent progress in immunotherapy to […]



COVID-19, diabetes and Ramadan

EASD e-Learning’s latest module takes a fresh look at Ramadan guidance for people with diabetes, this time through the lens of COVID-19. The module explores how the risks of Ramadan fasting have been exacerbated during the pandemic – and why adhering to guidelines for safe fasting is vital, now more than ever. One of the […]



Back to virtual for the EASD’s clinical research training

Owing to COVID-19 restrictions, the acclaimed EASD-Robert Turner clinical research training course will now be held online as a virtual interactive course. As we reported back in December, the EASD-Robert Turner course was due to return to a face-to-face format in April this year. This has since had to be postponed due to COVID-19 restrictions. […]



You said, we did

Learner feedback is a two-way process and central to the ongoing development of the EASD e-Learning platform. Dr Gillian Manning, EASD e-Learning’s Clinical Education Lead, reports on activities in this area over recent months. This update highlights some of the feedback we have received from you in the last few months. We also wanted to […]



Gut feeling: diabetes and the microbiome

What do we know about the microbiome’s role in diabetes – and could modulating it be a future treatment? These questions were answered in a presentation at the International Diabetes Federation Middle East and North Africa Congress 2021 (IDF MENA). Lisa Buckingham reports. In this wide-ranging presentation, Professor Dario Rahelic, assistant professor at Vuk Vrhovac […]



Towards precision diabetology

It has long been evident that labelling people with diabetes as having either type 1 or type 2 does not reflect the complexity of the condition. A paper in a recent issue of Diabetologia reviews evidence from recent research around novel subtypes of the condition. The prospect of a more nuanced classification of diabetes opens […]



Protect your kidneys, save your heart

Dr Kevin Fernando, GP Partner and Educational Supervisor, North Berwick Health Centre, and Scottish Lead of the Primary Care Diabetes Society, gave a masterclass in managing chronic kidney disease with type 2 diabetes in primary care at the Society’s recent conference. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. If someone with type 2 diabetes has an estimated glomerular […]



Flash monitoring improves HbA1c in people with type 1 diabetes

A real-world study of people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland, reported in a recent issue of Diabetologia, shows that adopting flash monitoring reduces HbA1c, as well as hospital admissions for diabetic ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemia. The findings suggest that uptake of flash monitoring needs to be further encouraged across the socioeconomic spectrum to help […]



Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in primary care

Dr Kevin Fernando, GP Partner and Educational Supervisor, North Berwick Health Centre, and Scottish Lead of the UK’s Primary Care Diabetes Society, shared some top tips for dealing with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes in primary care at the Society’s recent conference. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Kevin began his talk on […]



The rise and rise of telehealth

The huge potential of telehealth for education and managing diabetes was discussed at the International Diabetes Federation Middle East and North Africa Congress 2021 (IDF MENA). Lisa Buckingham reports. One of the co-moderators of this patient education session began by pointing out that managing type 1 diabetes is so much easier when the patient, their […]



Focus on diabetes and Ramadan

Ramadan is just two months away – the perfect time to assess and advise your patients with diabetes who wish to observe the Ramadan fast. In the latest EASD e-Learning module, Dr Ehtasham Ahmad focuses on applying the principles set out in ADA/EASD consensus recommendations for type 2 diabetes to the management of people with […]



Top tips for insulin management in type 2 diabetes

The discovery of insulin just over 100 years ago was one of the most significant moments in medical history. It is still essential for those with type 1 diabetes and, today, increasing numbers of people with type 2 diabetes rely upon insulin for their health and wellbeing.  Three case studies presented at at the UK’s […]



Focus on hypoglycaemia

Episodes of hypoglycaemia – especially severe hypoglycaemia – are an ongoing concern in diabetes, so an update given at the 19th World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease recently was especially welcome. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Guillermo Umpierrez, Professor of Medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and also President Elect of the […]



Weight loss diets for type 2 diabetes

Weight loss – an important goal for those with or at risk of type 2 diabetes – is high on many people’s list of New Year’s resolutions. For those wanting to lose weight in 2022, a new review published in Diabetologia this month suggests reducing overall calories rather than intakes of certain foods may be […]



New clinical guidelines on diabetes technology

The latest guidance on the use of insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring and other technology in diabetes care was presented at December’s World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, as Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Technology has now penetrated diabetes care. Insulin pumps have been around now since the late 1970s, the growth of […]



“Would it be ok to talk about your weight?”

Weight loss is key to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Speaking at the 17th National Conference of the Primary Care Diabetes Society (PCDS) recently, Jennifer Logue, Professor of Metabolic Medicine, Lancaster University, shared some tips on how best to work with your patients on this crucial issue. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. The UK […]



Severe hypoglycaemia in the ER

What are the clinical characteristics of severe hypoglycaemia requiring emergency room (ER) treatment? Revealing data was presented at the 2021 International Hypoglycaemia Study Group (IHSG) Advances in Hypoglycaemia virtual meeting. Lisa Buckingham reports. Soon H Song, consultant physician and diabetologist at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (UK), first outlined what we know about hypoglycaemia, […]



Is there a new COVID-19 role for colchicine?

A long-established treatment for gout, colchicine – the world’s oldest anti-inflammatory drug – can attack COVID-19 inflammation at several points and has shown promising results in a clinical trial, reports Dr Susan Aldridge. It’s well known by now that COVID-19 infection can lead to severe inflammatory disease, with manifestations similar to toxic shock syndrome, Kawasaki […]



Hypoglycaemia and cognitive function: new research

Hypoglycaemia’s effect on cognitive function was the focus of research presented at the 2021 International Hypoglycaemia Study Group (IHSG) Advances in Hypoglycaemia virtual meeting. Lisa Buckingham reports. People with type 1 diabetes have, on average, a hypoglycaemic episode two to three times per week and for those with type 2 diabetes on insulin treatment, it’s […]



Expanding population diversity in type 2 diabetes genetics

To date, most genetic studies in type 2 diabetes have been limited to people of European ancestry, even though the increasing prevalence of the condition is set to hit low- to middle-income countries hardest. However, the advent of rapid genotyping has meant that global representation in genetic databases and studies been increasing in recent years. […]



Preserving beta cell function with diabetes medication

Glucose-lowering drugs do not always address beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes, according to findings presented at last month’s 19th World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. Ralph DeFronzo, Chief of the Diabetes Division, UT Health San Antonio, argues that medication that protects the beta cells should be first-line therapy ­– and […]



Will there be an [email protected]?

As insulin’s centennial year draws to a close, Professor Chantal Mathieu asks what the future holds for medical history’s ‘miracle cure’ – and who might still have cause to celebrate it in another century’s time? As Professor Chantal Mathieu says in her presentation, 2021 has been a festive year for the centenary of insulin’s discovery. […]



Is there gender bias in CVD prevention?

Women tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with men. Does this mean they tend to be overlooked when it comes to prevention? A new study, presented at the EASD’s 57th Annual Meeting, looks at gender differences in cardiovascular risk, prevention and outcomes in type 2 diabetes through analysis of a large […]



Prediabetes: the latest thinking

With type 2 diabetes cases still rising, it becomes ever more important to understand the role of prediabetes. Lisa Buckingham reports. At the latest EASD conference, Coen Stehouwer, Professor of Medicine at Maastricht University, presented ‘Prediabetes: innnocent or guilty as charged?’ and made a compelling case for the latter. He began with the statement that, […]



Fighting neuropathic pain: finding the right tools for the job

For people with painful diabetic neuropathy, turning off the pain completely is usually not a realistic option, says Professor Solomon Tesfaye in his latest EASD e-Learning module. But don’t let that stop you from pursuing maximum pain relief as aggressively as possible. After several decades working in the field of diabetic neuropathy, Professor Solomon Tesfaye […]



Type 2 diabetes risk in second-generation and mixed-heritage ethnic minorities

Second-generation people of South Asian and African Caribbean ancestry born in the UK have a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than their parents, as do those of mixed heritage, according to a new study published in Diabetologia in October. However, they still have a higher risk than Europeans, some of which can be explained […]



Type 1 diabetes and pregnancy: two insulins compared

New research presented at the latest EASD conference compared two different insulins in pregnancy for women with type 1 diabetes. Lisa Buckingham reports. Poor glycaemic control in women with type 1 diabetes is related to poor pregnancy outcomes.  Achieving good diabetic control is therefore extremely important in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes – a […]



HHS: a deadly but neglected complication

Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic syndrome (HHS) is associated with four- to five-fold higher mortality than diabetic ketoacidosis, yet the condition is still poorly understood. Professors Guillermo Umpierrez and Ketan Dhatariya take a closer look at a complication all too often overlooked by diabetes research. HHS is a diabetic complication, primarily of type 2 diabetes, that is marked […]



Can diabetes remission come from the pancreas itself?

Non-beta cells in the pancreas can take over insulin production from beta cells lost to diabetes, according to new research presented at the 57th annual EASD meeting. This offers the tantalising prospect of a diabetes treatment in which the pancreas heals itself. This year’s Albert Renold Lecture, entitled ‘Diabetes remission through insulin secretion from non-beta […]



Dapagliflozin withdrawn for type 1 diabetes

Just over two years after its approval in the UK and EU as the first new treatment for type 1 diabetes since the discovery of insulin, the use of dapagliflozin is no longer authorised in this population group. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. In September 2019, dapagliflozin became the first adjunct therapy to be prescribed to […]



Face-to-face training set to return for 2022

Are you a junior doctor interested in research? Have you just started your research fellowship? Do you need training in clinical research design and analysis? The interactive and highly successful EASD Robert Turner Clinical Research Training Course will be returning to the face-to-face format in 2022 – hosted once again by Oxford University’s Clinical Departments. […]



Personalising medicine in type 2 diabetes

There is a wealth of new findings on how to optimise treatment for kidney and heart complications in type 2 diabetes and many sessions at the 57th Annual EASD Meeting were devoted to personalised medicine. One of the highlights was the Camillo Golgi Prize Lecture, with its presentation of the breadth of recent research – […]



Failure to advance: therapeutic inertia and type 2 diabetes

“The longer you leave it, the worse the outcomes,” says Professor Kamlesh Khunti in his new module on therapeutic inertia and type 2 diabetes, which launches today. The evidence has been mounting up for years. The UKPDS demonstrated that tight glycaemic control reduces the complications of type 2 diabetes. Subsequent UKPDS follow-up studies showed that […]



Two more modules get CPD quality mark

Another two EASD e-Learning modules have been accredited for CPD by the UKs Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP). As of today, the modules ‘Hypoglycaemia in older people’ by Professor Brian Frier and ‘An introduction to real-world evidence’ by Dr Marc Evans will carry the RCGP’s quality mark. EASD e-Learning Programme Director Dr Eleanor D […]



Can we fine tune exercise interventions in type 2 diabetes?

As we battle the entwined epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes, exercise is an important tool at our disposal. In her Claude Bernard prize lecture at this year’s EASD conference, Professor Juleen Zierath reflected on work that is deepening our understanding of how exercise can best be utilised. Lisa Buckingham reports. In the Claude […]



Diet and diabetes: exploring the links between obesity and type 2 diabetes

Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes but it’s not universally the case that those who are diagnosed are overweight or obese. Two pieces of new research presented at the recent 57th EASD Annual Meeting shed light on the mechanisms behind this, suggesting promising avenues for treatment and prevention. Lisa Buckingham reports. Effects […]



New treatment for diabetic eye disease?

Findings presented at the 57th EASD Annual Meeting suggest that calcium dobesilate can prevent retinal damage by stopping capillary leakage. It may therefore be able to protect the eyesight of people with diabetes by slowing the progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Calcium dobesilate, a compound that has been […]



Routine genome sequencing for type 2 diabetes diagnostics?

The strong influence of genetics in type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly apparent, thanks to advances in technology like next generation sequencing. In her Minkowski Prize Lecture at the 57th EASD Annual Meeting, Dr Amélie Bonnefond described recent research that shows type 2 is so much more than a lifestyle disease, as well as opening […]



Island insulin challenges: fridges, hurricanes and limited choice

In the latest in our new series, ‘Insulin in my country’, we learn about the challenges of treating diabetes in St Lucia. ‘Insulin in my country’ launched on Horizons in September to shine a light on the issues still faced with insulin usage across the world. Access and choice is not equitable, varying hugely from […]



2021 prize lecture: the long journey to type 1 prevention

Webcasts from the EASD’s 2021 virtual meeting are now available free to all on the EASD website. To help you explore what’s on offer, over the coming weeks we’ll be giving you a taste of some of this year’s conference highlights. To start us off, Susan Aldridge reports on Professor John Todd’s Novo Nordisk prize […]



Technology in young people: when and what should we use?

Current technologies and hopes for the future were hot topics at October’s GAED Annual Virtual Congress. There is one treatment target in all age groups at all times and that is good metabolic control, said Professor Carine de Beaufort, paediatric endocrinologist at the Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg and President of the International Society for Paediatric […]



You said, we did

Listening and responding to feedback from our learners continues to be at the forefront of ensuring the EASD e-Learning programme is up-to-date, evidence based and meets the needs of our learners. It is also important that you know your feedback is taken seriously. CPD accreditation We have regularly received feedback from learners asking for continuing […]



A triangle of care: why the liver should not be forgotten

Dr Kenneth Cusi, chief of the division of endocrinology and diabetes at the University of Florida and Professor Gianluca Perseghin, chief of endocrinology at the University of Milano-Bicocca, team up to discuss why diabetologists should be screening the liver, how best to do it, the lifestyle interventions that can help and medications on the horizon. […]



Powerful pain relief for diabetic neuropathy

A study presented at last month’s EASD Annual Meeting reveals that spinal cord stimulation is a safe and effective treatment for persistent pain caused by diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It also brings about neurological improvements and a better quality of life. Dr Susan Aldridge reports. Dr Erica Petersen from the Arkansas University of Medical Sciences presented […]



Physical activity guidelines: does one size fit all?

Regional nuances in the public health impact of inactivity and approaches to its treatment were in the spotlight at this year’s EASD Annual Meeting, as part of an ‘East meets West’ symposium on medical nutrition, physical activity and exercise for diabetes. Lisa Buckingham reports. To begin his presentation, ‘Physical activity guidelines: East meets West’, Dr […]



More CPD breakthroughs

Seven EASD e-Learning modules have now been accredited as educational resources for continuing professional development by the UK’s Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) and will carry the college’s quality mark. We take a closer look at what accreditation means for learners. Starting today, RCGP accreditation marks will appear on the module and course introduction […]



Can technology transform diabetic footcare?

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) can be prevented and involving the patient in their own footcare plays a large part in achieving that. At the Gulf Association of Endocrinology and Diabetes (GAED) Annual Virtual Congress 2021, Andrew Boulton, Professor of Medicine at the Universities of Manchester and Miami, Florida, discussed the latest technologies in diabetic footcare […]



The more the merrier - improving type 2 risk factors

A new study from the Steno Diabetes Center, presented at last month’s EASD conference, shows the value of multifactorial intervention in type 2 diabetes. Improvement in more than one risk factor had a significant impact on clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular death. We know quite a lot about the risk factors affecting outcomes in type […]



Family matters in type 1 and mental health

Reporting at the EASD’s 57th Annual Meeting, a team at the Karolinska Institute has found that mental health issues like depression and anxiety affect not just the person with type 1 diabetes, but their family as well. It seems that both genetics and shared environment likely contribute to this association. It has long been known […]



Management of type 1 diabetes: highlights from a new consensus

Psychosocial care and individualisation were common themes from the new ADA/EASD consensus report presented at the 57th EASD Annual Meeting 2021. Dedicated to adults with type 1 diabetes, this new report sits alongside the consensus report on type 2 diabetes. Chairing the session at which the report was presented, Professor Richard Holt, co-chair of the […]



The briefing room is open, step inside…

To kick off its latest initiative, ‘The briefing room’, EASD e-Learning has brought together a stellar panel to discuss one of the most urgent and significant issues facing diabetes today: obesity. At one point during this lively and entertaining discussion, professor and bariatric surgeon Francesco Rubino urges his fellow panelists: “Let’s make a theory of […]



Diabetic retinopathy genes under the microscope

Researchers in Finland have used the latest genome-analysis technology to discover some rare gene variants that contribute to severe diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes which can, when severe, lead to visual loss and disability. Grading on the ‘gold standard’ ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) scale during diabetic eye screening […]



New risk markers for type 2 diabetes complications?

It may be worth paying more attention to both degree of insulin resistance and fasting insulin levels when monitoring the health of people with type 2 diabetes, according to new research presented at the EASD’s 57th Annual Meeting last month. Insulin resistance is known to be a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, while stroke can […]



Good news for glucose metabolism in new STEP 2 analysis

A further analysis of the STEP 2 trial results presented at last week’s 57th EASD Annual Meeting showed promising glucose metabolism results for the GLP-1 receptor agonist, with two thirds of participants assigned semaglutide (2.4 mg) in the trial attaining HbA1c of <6.5%. STEP trials 1 and 2 showed semaglutide 2.4 mg as a promising […]



EMPEROR-Preserved: 'A win against a formidable foe'

Results from the EMPEROR-Preserved trial give further testament to the benefits offered by SGLT-2 inhibitors in diabetes care. Responding to results presented at the EASD’s virtual conference, leading cardiologist Mark Drazner described the EMPEROR-Preserved trial in heart failure – one of the main complications facing people with diabetes – as “a win against a formidable […]



Cognitive function and hypoglycaemia

The brain is a voracious consumer of glucose and for many the effects upon it of a lack of blood sugar are among the most concerning aspects of life with diabetes. For our latest ‘Long and short of it’, Professors Stephanie Amiel and Rory McCrimmon join forces to examine what we know about hypoglycaemia’s acute […]



Get real: an introduction to real-world evidence

The value attached to real-world evidence (RWE) in clinical decision making has increased significantly over recent years. Using examples taken from diabetes treatment, our latest module – launching today – looks at what RWE is, why it is important and who can benefit from it. Over several years Dr Marc Evans (University Hospital of Llandough, […]



How to treat painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy

In his second module for our ‘Diabetic neuropathy’ course, Professor Solomon Tesfaye takes a closer look at the pathophysiology of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and surveys the treatments currently available. There is little doubt in Professor Solomon Tesfaye’s mind as to what causes diabetic peripheral neuropathy. “The cause is impaired blood flow. This is another microvascular […]



Obesity and type 2 diabetes: ethnicity, age, gender and complications

The close link between obesity and type 2 diabetes is well established, but our latest module digs deeper – exploring the wider relationship with ethnicity, age and complications, cardiovascular disease in particular. One of the standout sessions at last year’s EASD Annual Meeting was Professor Naveed Sattar’s Camillo Golgi lecture, which had delegates gripped by […]



Diabetes in questions: 5 things we don’t yet know

What happened when we asked our authors to list the top five research questions in their area of specialisation? The answer is a new series of short films, starting today. “It was one of those questions we would casually throw out there, almost as a warm up before getting down to the real business of […]



Insulin in my country: national perspectives on a life-saving discovery

Centennial celebrations of insulin’s discovery have, with good reason, tended to dwell on progress and innovation in its design and usage. But what about the more basic challenges still faced by so many users of this medical miracle? A new series launching simultaneously today on Horizons and on EASD TV at the virtual Annual Meeting, […]



CPD breakthrough: EASD e-Learning wins RCGP accreditation

Modules on the EASD e-Learning platform have now received formal educational accreditation for continuous professional development (CPD) from the UK’s Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP), it was announced today at the EASD’s 57th Annual Meeting. EASD President Stefano Del Prato told delegates during his address at the Annual Meeting’s opening ceremony that two modules […]



Treatment and prevention of NAFLD

In the wake of the diabetes pandemic, prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is on the rise. Following his first module about the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of NAFLD, Professor Michael Roden’s new module looks at potential treatments for this serious but reversible condition. The need for therapies to combat NAFLD is clear. Between […]



Conference countdown: ask the e-Learning expert

The 57th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) opens tomorrow. Once again, this year’s conference will be virtual – and there are some new ‘live’ twists to tempt you in too. Last year over 20,000 registered delegates attended the EASD’s first ever Virtual EASD Annual Meeting – with a […]



Getting to grips with fear of hypoglycaemia

Though not much talked about, fear of hypoglycaemia can have devastating implications for the wellbeing and health of people with diabetes. In his new module, Professor Frank Snoek examines the challenges fear of hypoglycaemia present for people with diabetes and the options available to healthcare professionals to identify, prevent and treat it. Balancing the risk […]



Type 2 diabetes in youth: Are more physical activity and less screen time the answer?

Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are on the rise in young people, so finding ways to prevent them early in life is becoming ever more urgent. Delegates at the American Diabetes Association 81st Scientific Sessions were treated to a closer examination of the competing impacts of physical activity and screen time on type 2 diabetes […]



What’s the new consensus for type 1 diabetes?

A draft consensus report on the management of type 1 diabetes in adults from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and European Association for the Study of Diabetes is now available. In our latest ‘The long and the short of it’, Professors Pratik Choudhary and Emma Wilmot take a closer look. “This is a meaty document,” […]



On your marks: blood glucose targets and exercise

Action to take before, during and after exercise for people with type 1 diabetes was the focus of a presentation at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 81st Scientific Sessions. ‘Is there an optimal target blood glucose (BG) during physical activity?’ was the question posed and answered by Dr Ian Gallen, endocrinology and diabetes consultant at […]



An enduring role: human insulin in low-income countries

Insulin choices are inevitably influenced by economic circumstances – but never more starkly than in developing countries, as Professor Kaushik Ramaiya demonstrates in his presentation on the role of human insulin in the care of children with type 1 diabetes in Tanzania. Much of the discussion marking the centenary of the discovery of insulin has […]



Intermittent fasting: what we do and don’t know

A session at the American Diabetes Association 81st Scientific Sessions shone a spotlight on the impact of intermittent fasting on health, ageing and disease. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) or intermittent fasting (IF), as it’s now more commonly known, has become a popular weight-loss strategy in recent years. It has other health outcomes that are being investigated […]



Reducing cardiovascular risk in diabetes

Old friends, colleagues and compatriots, Professors Stefano del Prato and Antonio Ceriello join forces once again to examine the current state of play in the perennial struggle against cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. For time immemorial, the inter-relationship of heart disease and diabetes has been the object of determined clinical effort and the subject […]



Executive functioning in young people with type 1 diabetes

Two presentations at the American Diabetes Association 81st Scientific Sessions highlighted the differences a good understanding of executive functioning can make to supporting young people with diabetes. Danny Duke, associate professor of paediatrics at Oregon Health and Science University, began by defining executive functioning (EF). This can vary according to context but he defined it […]



Diabetic neuropathy: the cost of late diagnosis

Diabetic neuropathy exacts a heavy toll on the health and wellbeing of people with diabetes – and the health services that care for them. So why aren’t we finding cases earlier, when there’s still time to prevent the worst of the damage? Professor Solomon Tesfaye’s new module gets to the nub of the matter with […]



Motivation: the key to hypoglycaemia management

Hurdles that need to be overcome in managing hypoglycaemia were put in the spotlight at this year’s American Diabetes Association 81st Scientific Sessions. Dr Nicole de Zoysa, a clinical psychologist at the King’s College London Department of Diabetes, specialises in chronic health conditions and gave a presentation on the role that psycho-education (PE) can have […]



An incremental journey

The introduction and development of insulin analogues over recent decades have helped people with diabetes to smooth their glucose management, reducing both HbA1c and hypoglycaemia. In this month’s contribution to our [email protected] series, Dr Tim Heise looks back at how they made a difference – and looks forward to the changes yet to come. One […]



Parents of children with type 1 diabetes are patients too

Preserving the physical and mental health of young children with type 1 diabetes and their parents was the subject of a presentation at the American Diabetes Association 81st Scientific Sessions. When type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in babies and young children, it comes with a set of challenges unique to that stage of life. Special […]



The women who never should be missed

It’s better to get a false positive than to miss a woman with gestational diabetes, say Professor Fidelma Dunne (National University of Ireland) and Dr Eoin Noctor (University Hospital Limerick, Ireland) in their presentation on the current controversies around screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes. According to the latest figures from the International Diabetes Federation, […]



Spotlight on new insulins

Insulin has been a lifesaver for people with diabetes, though its use is not without its challenges. But 100 years after its discovery, innovation in insulin therapy is still alive and could improve diabetes care. In this centenary year, new insulins were naturally a hot topic at the Advanced Technologies and Treatment for Diabetes (ATTD) […]



Dr Motivator

Exercise is a key part of a healthy lifestyle, but it’s notoriously hard to instil as a behaviour change. Here’s the latest on how to succeed…  We know that exercise can improve quality of life and outcomes for people with diabetes, and help to prevent progression from prediabetes, but questions remain on the most effective […]



Tackling the fear of hypoglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia can be uncomfortable and even dangerous. Is it any wonder, then, that fear of hypoglycaemia contributes to diabetes burden and diabetes distress, particularly for parents whose children have type 1 diabetes? Delegates at this year’s Advanced Technologies and Treatment for Diabetes (ATTD) meeting learned of a new approach to alleviating fear of hypoglycaemia, which […]



After shock

Links between the presence of microvascular diabetic complications and worse outcomes in COVID-19 are well established. Now, however, new research suggests those linkages may reverberate way beyond the acute disease phase, compounding post-COVID syndrome. In his presentation on the links between diabetic microvascular complications and COVID-19, Professor Rayaz Malik quotes a celebrated line from the […]



Do premixed insulins have a place in 21st century diabetes care?

Premixed insulins have been around almost from the earliest decades of insulin manufacture. But as innovation in insulin design gathers pace, do they still have a role to play? Professor Shashank Joshi is in no doubt as to the future of premixed insulin formulations: “Premixed insulins are here to stay,” he says. “Particularly in regions […]



Nuts about diabetes

Nuts are a nutritional powerhouse. Might they be a prevention powerhouse too? Delegates at the 38th International Symposium on Diabetes and Nutrition heard presentations on their role in preventing and managing metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Nuts have long been known for their nutritional value but they’re now coming under the research spotlight for […]



Hypoglycaemia in older people

Hypoglycaemia presents particular challenges for older people, yet is frequently misdiagnosed in this group. In his new module, launching today, Professor Brian Frier sheds new light on this important but often underestimated aspect of diabetes.   Among our many current global health challenges, two of the most commonly cited are ageing populations and the rising tide of diabetes. Yet the two are rarely considered together – with the […]



Spotlight on virtual and digital diabetes care

The pandemic has provided healthcare professionals with a unique opportunity to make the most of a digital approach to diabetes care. The last year has seen dramatic changes in the way diabetes teams deliver care – with COVID-19 dictating a switch from traditional face-to-face appointments to remote care, backed up by the use of digital […]



Diabetes diets: then and now

At the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 81st Scientific Sessions, two fascinating presentations on the evolution of diabetes nutrition therapy revealed how we’ve got to where we are today. We’ve known about the importance of nutrition in diabetes for more than a century. Melinda Maryniuk, a renowned dietitian who was previously Director of Care Programs at […]



Could empagliflozin become a treatment for heart failure?

Topline results from the EMPEROR-Preserved Phase 3 trial suggest potential for empagliflozin as a treatment for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The as-yet-unpublished findings are due to be presented at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2021 in August. The EMPEROR-Preserved trial investigated the safety and efficacy of the SGLT-2 inhibitor Jardiance® (empagliflozin)in […]



Going for gold

People with type 1 diabetes have been pushing the boundaries of sporting excellence for the past 100 years. Now, thanks to technology like continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and closed-loop, they are achieving more than ever before Several athletes with type 1 diabetes are aiming for a medal at this summer’s Tokyo Olympics, while professional cyclists […]



What happens to your feedback?

Listening to your feedback continues to be at the forefront of ensuring the EASD e-Learning programme is up to date, evidence based and meets the needs of our learners. You may recently have read about some changes we made to the e-Learning platform to make it easier for you to let us know what you […]



Vaccines and beyond

If you want a deeper understanding of the COVID-19 vaccination landscape, Dr Marc Evans is here to help. This week on Horizons we’re launching part one of his two-part presentation, an in-depth survey of the various vaccination approaches and how each of them performs against new variants. Dr Marc Evans’ research passions are real-world evidence, […]



“A vicious spiral of two worsening diseases”: NAFLD and type 2 diabetes

Look to the liver – for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has important links with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and can worsen the risk of cardiovascular disease. NAFLD is a multisystem disease that begins with fat accumulation in the liver. Once 5% or more of the liver cells contain fat, the person actually […]



Could yogurt help prevent type 2 diabetes?

The human microbiome, its role in diabetes and whether we can modify it with diet was the subject of two presentations at the 38th International Symposium on Diabetes and Nutrition. As an increasing amount of research turns its attention to the human gut microbiome and its influence on disease prevention, yogurt consumption is in the […]



Puberty and type 2 diabetes

Early puberty timing is linked with type 2 diabetes and our increasing understanding of this could lead to targeted interventions in the future… With type 2 diabetes on the rise, understanding the origins of the disease and whether we can tackle its causes earlier in life is key. At the 2021 Diabetes UK Professional Conference, […]



Delivering on the promise of insulin

The discovery of insulin was one of the most remarkable breakthroughs in the history of medicine – and subsequent innovations have radically improved its use and flexibility, says Professor Kamlesh Khunti in the latest in our series ‘[email protected]’. But its full potential is being stymied by therapeutic inertia. Professor Khunti is in no doubt as […]



Contraception for women with diabetes

Empowering women to choose the right contraception can make a huge difference to their lives – and to their experience of pregnancy should they choose that later down the line. This year’s Diabetes UK Professional Conference highlighted the importance of providing good contraceptive advice to women with diabetes. As part of a session on women’s […]



Digital biomarkers and precision monitoring: what’s new in diabetes testing?

The need for precision medicine to inform diabetes management decisions is widely understood, but how can we achieve it? Precision monitoring could be the enabler. Historically, biomarkers have been complex measurement process unsuited to home testing and involving expensive data points. Diabetes biomarkers may include blood glucose drawn at a clinical lab and mean glycaemia […]



Operating on behaviour

The latest module in EASD e-Learning’s course on metabolic surgery launches today, written and presented by Dr Dimitri Pournaras, a prolific researcher in the field, who is also a bariatric and metabolic surgeon at North Bristol NHS Trust. And as his module shows, there’s more to this surgery than meets the eye… Dimitri’s module is […]



Non-surgical interventions for obesity in type 2 diabetes: an overview

There are pros and cons to each of the non-surgical approaches designed to reduce bodyweight in people living with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and these were outlined at this year’s Diabetes UK Professional Conference. Dietary interventions came first in a thorough and concise presentation from Dr Karl Neff, consultant endocrinologist and obesity physician at […]



The pros and cons of bariatric surgery

As bariatric surgery becomes more popular, we’re finding out more about its safety and outcomes. At the 2021 Diabetes UK Professional Conference, two experts explored its complications and benefits. As bariatric surgery increases in popularity, we are encountering more problems such as nutritional deficiencies, post-operative pain, osmotic dumping syndrome and post-bariatric hypoglycaemia (PBH), said Dr […]



What’s in the pipeline for cardiometabolic medicine?

We now have unprecedented levels of research and development into drugs that can help manage cardiovascular risk, particularly in type 2 diabetes. Professor Naveed Sattar (University of Glasgow, UK) and Professor Darren McGuire (UT Southwestern, USA) get to grips with how this has come about and what new treatments we might look to in the […]



Diabetes and pregnancy: the implications

Diabetes in pregnancy can impact both mother and child. Two experts at this year’s Diabetes UK Professional Conference covered the link between gestational diabetes and stillbirth, and how to prepare women with pre-existing diabetes for pregnancy. At around three in 1,000 births, the UK has one of the highest stillbirth prevalence proportions in Europe and […]



Connecting diabetes phenotypes and COVID-19 outcomes

Diabetes was identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis of COVID-19 early on in the pandemic. Research is now revealing a more nuanced association between levels of risk and phenotypic characteristics – work that could help identify which people with diabetes are at greater risk of developing severe COVID-19 or dying from the disease. […]



Metformin in pregnancy – a review of the evidence

Metformin is used in pregnancy but there are still knowledge gaps. Here’s what we do and don’t know… In 2019, one in six pregnancies was affected by gestational diabetes, according to the International Diabetes Federation, and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy is also an increasing concern. At the 2021 Diabetes UK Professional Conference, Professor Fidelma […]



Surgical solutions

Surgical intervention to help manage or even reverse type 2 diabetes has become well established over the last two decades. In the first module in EASD e-Learning’s latest course, ‘Metabolic surgery’, Professor Carel Le Roux examines the underlying mechanisms that make this much talked-about treatment so effective. There are various mechanisms by which metabolic surgery […]



Precision medicine: “If not now, then when?”

Healthcare providers need tools to help personalise care for people living with diabetes, so they can achieve better outcomes and quality of life. But as attendees at this year’s Precision Medicine Diabetes Conference heard, patients themselves aren’t waiting; they can’t afford to. Each of the three days of this year’s Precision Medicine Diabetes Conference (a […]



Saving limbs with good diabetic foot care

Quality screening, early diagnosis and timely referrals are key to preventing amputations in diabetes. Two experts shared their knowledge in an enlightening Primary Care Diabetes Europe webinar Jane Diggle, a specialist diabetes nurse practitioner, set the scene with statistics demonstrating just how important it is to provide good diabetes foot care – one in three […]



“See you on the road!”

Professors Miles Fisher and Mike Riddell – both of whom are keen advocates of exercise for people with type 1 diabetes, and cycling aficionados – gear up and don the lycra for the latest in our series ‘The long and the short of it’. The general benefits of exercise people with type 1 diabetes are […]



Why we all need to eat more dietary fibre

It’s not the most glamorous of nutrients but it’s making a big comeback in research into non-infectious diseases, including diabetes. For decades, dietary fibre only got a mention for easing constipation, but its powers extend way beyond that. Dr Denise Robertson, reader in nutritional physiology at the University of Surrey, gave a fascinating presentation at […]



Listen up!

Changes are afoot on the e-Learning platform – all aimed at making it easier for you to let us know what you think about our courses and alert us to any technical problems. Starting this week, regular visitors will notice a new presence on our pages. To the right of the screen, wherever you are […]



Fasting safely in the time of COVID-19

With the second COVID-19-era Ramadan now ended, Professor Wasim Hanif presents detailed guidance on supporting people with diabetes to fast safely during a pandemic. At the end of his presentation, Professor Hanif shares several sayings from the prophet Muhammad. One of these reads “ ‘Your soul, indeed, has rights on you!’ (Bukhari) Among its rights […]



Why behavioural diabetes research matters

Psychosocial factors have profound effects on the way people live with diabetes, but how can we apply findings from behavioural research to diabetes care? Two insightful, eye-opening presentations at the 2021 Diabetes UK Professional Conference pointed the way. Difficult conversations in diabetes care are inevitable but how and when they’re done impacts on their efficacy. […]



STEP 2 does it again

Semaglutide shows promise as an obesity treatment yet again, but this time in people with type 2 diabetes Semaglutide hit the headlines earlier this year after the 68-week Semaglutide Treatment Effect in People with Obesity (STEP 1) trial found that a subcutaneous 2.4 mg dose once weekly plus lifestyle intervention resulted in a sustained, clinically […]



Metabolic surgery and type 2 diabetes: the best or worst of times?

Do recent studies showing unprecedented success for weight loss-inducing medications spell an end for surgical interventions to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes? Far from it, say Professor Carel Le Roux and Dr Dimitri Pournaras in the latest contribution to our series ‘The long and the short of it’. “It was the best of times. […]



Reducing amputations: how to save limbs during the pandemic and beyond

Nearly all ulcers are preventable, which is why foot care and education is such a vital part of looking after diabetes patients – and took centre stage at one of the sessions of this year’s Diabetes UK Professional Conference. There are over 7000 diabetes-related amputations in England each year and 80% are preceded by foot […]



Restoring physiological insulin

Continuing the EASD e-Learning [email protected] series, Professor Eelco de Koning turns to the subject of physiological insulin replacement by transplantation. One of the surprising facts revealed in Professor Eelco de Koning’s presentation is that the first attempt at pancreatic cell transplantation predated even the discovery of insulin. In 1893, a 15-year-old English boy was admitted […]



Could fasting help prevent and treat diabetic retinopathy?

Fasting-induced stimulation of SIRT1 holds the key to an association between fasting regimens and the prevention of microvascular complications in diabetes, according to a new study in Diabetologia. It is now widely understood that the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as diabetes can be exacerbated by the sort of high energy-dense foods so often consumed […]



Ramadan 2021: fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic

This year marks the second Ramadan carried out under the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is an event that already comes with additional layers of risk for Muslims with diabetes, as Dr Sarah Ali, consultant in endocrinology, diabetes and general medicine at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust told the South Asian Health […]



Managing hypoglycaemia risk during Ramadan

Awareness among healthcare professionals and the importance of education and discussion with patients were key points in a survey of issues around hypoglycaemia and how to fast safely during Ramadan at the South Asian Health Foundation (SAHF) and Diabetes and Ramadan (DAR) International Alliance Annual Diabetes in Ramadan Conference in March. Fasting from sunrise to […]



Insulin past, present and future

In a lively and thought-provoking contribution to our [email protected] series, Professor Tina Vilsbøll takes us on a whistlestop tour of insulin’s clinical use – past, present and future. Professor Vilsbøll, who is a Professor at the University of Copenhagen and a consultant at the Steno Diabetes Centre, is known for her work as a researcher […]



New strategies for identifying patients with high cardiovascular risk

Study shows machine-learning-based clustering using finite mixture models can help identify phenogroups of people with type 2 diabetes, distinct clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk. Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. In a new study published in Diabetes Care, Segar et al. developed and validated different […]



Hypoglycaemia in primary care: ask and you will find it

Primary care is an ideal place to identify hypoglycaemia and help patients to avoid it in the future, according to the latest Primary Care Diabetes Europe (PCDE) webinar If you look at the data and ask enough patients, hypoglycaemia is common in clinical practice, according to Kamlesh Khunti, Professor of Primary Care Diabetes and Vascular […]



Hypoglycaemia in the spotlight

Sometimes seen as the price you pay for good glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia can have a profoundly damaging impact on the lives and wellbeing of many people on insulin and other glucose-lowering therapies.  Hypoglcyaemia’s negative effects can be felt in almost any part of the body – from cardiac arrhythmias to cognitive impairment. The associated feelings […]



Study highlights urgency of hyperglycaemia treatment in patients hospitalised with COVID-19

Severe hyperglycaemia shortly after admission to a non-ICU hospital setting in patients with COVID-19 is associated with a 7-fold increase in mortality risk, according to a study published in Diabetes Care.  The study by Klonoff et al. also showed that admission glucose was a strong predictor of death among patients directly admitted to the intensive […]



Exercise and insulin: a powerful combination

The latest feature in our series celebrating [email protected] focuses on the potent but precarious synergy of exercise and insulin. By the standards of any era, Harley Street physician and diabetologist RD Lawrence was remarkable. But he must have seemed particularly so in the 1920s and 30s, when people with diabetes – despite the recent discovery […]



Study shows insulin immunotherapy safe for young children at risk of type 1 diabetes

Promising results from the Pre-POInT-early study, which investigated the safety and immune effects of high-dose oral insulin immunotherapy in children before the age of 2, when they are most susceptible to developing type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity. Autoimmunity against insulin in childhood type 1 diabetes has a peak incidence between 6 and 24 months of age […]



The other pandemic

In lock step with the pandemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes, another, less talked about condition is on the rise: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Between 70 and 80% of people with type 2 diabetes also have NAFLD. And having diabetes also increases the risk of NAFLD’s progression to other, more severe forms of […]



Should islet and pancreas recipients have a joint organ allocation policy?

Transplantation conference hears calls for an end to the notion of islet transplantation as experimental therapy, to be dealt with separately from whole pancreas transplantation in national allocation policies. But are we comparing apples and oranges? As islet transplantation is increasingly accepted as an effective treatment, the issues surrounding supply are being grappled with. In […]



NAFLD and NASH: fighting the silent pandemic

Links between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes loomed large at the Paris Hepatology Conference in March, as did the potential use of diabetes treatments to counter the rise of this life-threatening condition. Despite being a liver condition, patients with NAFLD can require the care of a multi-disciplinary team and the importance […]



The long and the short of it

EASD e-Learning’s latest initiative, ‘The long and the short it’, launches today. The series showcases leading diabetes experts interviewing one another on a particular aspect of diabetes treatment or research. The twist is that you get to choose how long the discussion lasts. “We know that our learners tend to be incredibly busy,” explains EASD […]



Donor demand

Are DCD donors the solution to boosting islet transplantations? One of the main challenges facing islet transplantation is supply of pancreases. At the 11th European Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association Symposium and 40th Artificial Insulin Delivery Systems, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Workshop, Professor Eelco de Koning from Leiden University Medical Centre gave a convincing presentation […]



New study points to predictors of outcomes in patients with diabetes and COVID-19

Results from the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and Diabetes Outcomes (CORONADO) study have identified variables linked to hospital discharge or to death among patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19, establishing indicative prognostic factors for clinicians during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. According to the study, which was published in Diabetologia in February 2021, protective and deleterious factors mirrored […]



Vaccine roll-out should be done in order of risk, study suggests

Vaccine strategies across Europe have been called into question after a large-scale analysis revealed that middle-aged people with type 2 diabetes have a disproportionately higher risk of dying from COVID-19. By evaluating published community and hospital data, the study, led by the University of Exeter Medical School in collaboration with Diabetes UK, showed that an […]



The patient who changed the way I think about diabetes

That patients should play a central role in managing their condition is now a generally acknowledged truism of diabetes care – at least in theory. What’s less widely spoken of are the many ways in which individual patients’ experiences help to shape a clinician’s vision and understanding of diabetes. In our new series of podcasts […]



Transplant conference session puts patients at the centre

The importance of involving patients in their own care and ensuring that their voices are heard was the theme of three presentations within the Patients Inclusion Initiative, a joint EPITA/EDTCO/ETAHP symposium to close the 11th European Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association Symposium and 40th Artificial Insulin Delivery Systems, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Workshop. First up […]



“The penny dropped”: Why an NEJM lung study was a turning point in our understanding of COVID-19 and diabetes

A study published last May in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), which described morphological and molecular changes in the lungs of people who died from COVID-19, is now cited as a turning point in our understanding of why people with type 2 and type 1 diabetes are more vulnerable to severe infection. In […]



New horizons

This week the EASD e-Learning platform is launching a new section on its site. Called ‘Horizons’, the section aims to be a more user-friendly central place where our learners can get diabetes news, updates about EASD and the diabetes research world generally and, of course, access our own initiatives – such as ‘Around the diabetes world’, […]



You said, we did

Listening to our learners is at the forefront of ensuring the EASD e-Learning programme is up to date, evidence based and meets the needs of our learners. It is also important that you know your feedback is taken seriously. As we launch some new features on the platform – several of these have been designed […]



COVID-19 leaves pancreas and islet transplant programmes under threat

COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on islet and pancreas transplantation, with many centres suspending their programmes and major reductions in organ retrievals. On day one of the 11th European Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association Symposium and 40th Artificial Insulin Delivery Systems, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation Workshop, delegates heard how this community is rising to […]



[email protected]: Insulin initiation and intensification

With world-wide prevalence of diabetes forecast to hit 700 million in the next 25 years, the need for effective insulin initiation and intensification has never been more pressing. Yet despite remarkable therapeutic advances since insulin’s discovery in 1921, particularly over the last 20 years, the last two decades have seen achievement of glycaemic targets decline […]



Prestigious clinical research training course goes virtual

This year’s Robert Turner clinical research training course will be taking place on-line, according to an announcement from the EASD’s postgraduate education committee. The course, named in honour of the late Professor Robert Turner, principal investigator of the ground-breaking United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), offers young researchers the opportunity to be trained by an […]



Medicines debate: typing mix up

Should type 2 diabetes medications with proven cardiovascular benefits be used to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes? This was the topic of debate on the final day of the 18th World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (WCIRDC). In the ‘Yes’ camp, Dr Richard Pratley, Adjunct Professor of Medicine at […]



GLP-1 receptor agonist shows promise as obesity treatment

As the obesity pandemic accelerates, the search for a safe, affordable, practicable, minimally invasive solution has become ever more urgent. The need to tackle this crisis has been further highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with higher rates of severe disease and death among people with obesity. A promising development came last week with the results […]



Obesity and COVID-19: “What we don’t know is almost everything”

The association between severe COVID-19 and obesity is well established, but how exactly does obesity fit into the COVID-19 picture? This pressing question was taken up at December’s 18th World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (WCIRDC) by Tracey L McLaughlin, Professor of Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Obesity is a […]



[email protected]: “Unspeakably wonderful”

At 11 years old, Elizabeth Evans-Hughes weighed just 45 lb. Elizabeth had type 1 diabetes – which, for a child at the start of the 1920s, was pretty much a death sentence. Remarkably, however, she lived on to the age of 73.   What saved Elizabeth was the discovery of insulin in 1921. In the following […]



Surgical dilemmas: Should bariatric surgery for people with diabetes be delayed during the COVID-19 pandemic?

As hospital beds fill with COVID-19 patients, elective surgery is being delayed for millions of people across the world and doctors in every area of medicine are having to make tough decisions about who gets treatment and who must wait. Even once the pandemic begins to recede, waiting times will continue to lengthen as pent-up […]



Hearts in peril

Professor Naveed Sattar’s Camillo Golgi lecture had delegates at the EASD’s recent Virtual Annual Meeting gripped by its exploration of cardiovascular risk in diabetes. An interactive, abridged version of this talk is now available here on the EASD e-Learning site. With its stirring call to arms to counter the devastating impact of type 2 diabetes […]



Prize lectures in a nutshell

In case you didn’t have time to catch the prize lectures at this year’s 56th EASD Annual Meeting, here’s your chance. EASD e-Learning has produced a series of interactive, abridged versions of some of the most fascinating of this year’s lectures, starting with the 55th Minkowski lecture: ‘Should I stay or should I go?’ Professor Gian […]



When pandemics collide: COVID-19 and diabetes

‘Two pandemics in collision: COVID-19 and diabetes’ was the title of a presentation by Paul Zimmet, Professor of Diabetes at Monash University in a joint session between The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology and the 18th World Congress on Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease (WCIRDC) in December. Professor Zimmet began by making the important point […]



‘You’ll never find what you’re not looking for’: NASH – under-diagnosed and under-treated

NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is increasingly in the spotlight due to its high prevalence and growing incidence in people across the world. As obesity and diabetes pandemics gather pace, cases of NAFLD are only going one way, so the research world is throwing its weight behind the hunt for better diagnostic tools and effective […]



Counting the cost of diabetes

Diabetes’ spiraling global prevalence comes with hefty price tag – estimated at US$161 billion according to the 2019 IDF Diabetes Atlas. The ‘Diabetes care is expensive’ session at this year’s EASD Annual Meeting took a closer look at the economic burden of diabetes, beginning with a study that shed new light on the problem’s source. […]



Parallel pandemics: COVID-19 and diabetes

One of the most powerful sessions at this year’s EASD Annual Meeting concerned COVID-19. First up was Professor Juliana Chan, whose Hong Kong registry has proved such a vital resource for understanding the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes. Here was a masterful survey of the available evidence in this sadly burgeoning field. Professor Chan began […]



Unusual forms of diabetes

Personalised treatment for people with diabetes is a long-cherished goal of diabetes care. A session on unusual forms of diabetes at the EASD’s Annual Meeting was a timely reminder of just why understanding the differences between people with diabetes is so important.



Trial results support latest ADA/EASD guidelines on role of SGLT-2 inhibitors in managing type 2 diabetes

New trial results announced at the EASD’s recent Annual Meeting, provide fresh evidence in support of joint ADA/EASD guidelines on type 2 diabetes management – specifically, the emphasis on use of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients at high risk of cardiovascular and kidney complications. Patients with diabetes who have heart failure and reduced ejection fraction are […]



We are what we don’t eat: fasting and diabetes

Intermittent fasting is the diet industry’s hot new kid on the block, dominating headlines and bestseller lists. But for all the books and column inches, evidence of its benefits from clinical trials - particularly human trials – is in relatively short supply. Which made the presentations at the ‘Fasting and diabetes’ session at the EASD’s Annual Meeting especially welcome.



Diabetes in primary care

Primary care was prominent at this year’s EASD Annual Meeting, testament to the “vital, pivotal role played by primary care in diabetes around the world” – as described by Professor Andrew Boulton, chair of the ‘Diabetes in primary care’ session.



Unlocking the potential of digital health

Digital health has been much talked about as one of the great hopes of better diabetes management, and with so many new technologies now established in the market – continuous or flash glucose monitoring (CGM or FGM) in particular, as well as remote data-gathering platforms – the supply side of that expectation seems to be […]



New treatments for NAFLD – Hope or hype?

Non-alcohol related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is big news these days; already, a quarter of adults in the USA are estimated to have the condition, and prevalence looks set to rise globally in step with the obesity pandemic.



The 56th EASD Annual Meeting − Day 1

Virtual conference. EASD blog – Day 1 (22 September) For obvious reasons, this year’s Annual Meeting was a virtual affair. Which meant that instead of the usual crush of researchers and healthcare professionals, the EASD plaza was populated by surprisingly slender avatars and everyone got a front-row seat at the lectures – albeit via their […]



The 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes - Day 3

Madrid EASD blog – Day 3 (22nd February 2020) The last day of the ATTD conference in Madrid ended, for me, with three very different sessions − from liver disease and hypoglycaemia to metabolic surgery and stem cells.  The increasing burden of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one being felt […]



The 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) - Day 2

Madrid EASD blog – Day 2 (21st February 2020) On the second day of the ATTD conference and, indeed, scattered throughout the programme, were several sessions on the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors in type 1 diabetes. This new class of drug has and is continuing to prove very beneficial in the management of type 2 […]



The 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) - Day 1

Madrid EASD blog – Day 1 (20th February 2020) This year’s Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) conference was held in Madrid in Spain. Over the course of three days, although a much smaller conference than, for example, the congresses of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of […]



Day 5 at American Diabetes Association annual conference 2019

The last day of this year’s American Diabetes Association (ADA) conference in San Francisco is only a half day – but it is quite a half day! The results from three clinical trials are reporting. Normally on the last day of any conference, attendance has shrunk dramatically. But not today and I enter into a […]



Day 4 at American Diabetes Association annual conference 2019

The penultimate day of the ADA conference starts with the Outstanding Scientific  Achievement Award Lecture given, this year by Professor Sadaf Farooqi from the University of Cambridge. Entitled “Obesity and the Biology of Weight Regulation”, Professor Farooqi’s research focusses on severe obesity and people with this have the highest burden of complications. Deaths from diabetes […]



Day 3 at American Diabetes Association annual conference 2019

My third day in San Francisco starts with a session on “The Resilient Beta Cell in Type 2 Diabetes”. Emerging research is indicating that not all beta cells are equal and that some have very different levels of activity. Professor Jim Johnston from the University of British Columbia in Canada explains that individual beta bells […]



Day 2 at American Diabetes Association annual conference 2019

This year’s organising committee has opted to pepper the 2019 programme with debates and, like yesterday’s debate between Professor David Matthews and Professor Thomas Pieber on the link between hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular events (click here to read the report from Day 1 of the conference), today presents three very different debates. The first of these […]



Day 1 at American Diabetes Association annual conference 2019

This year’s American Diabetes Association 79th Scientific Sessions are being held in San Francisco on the Californian coast. Thousands of delegates from around the world are gathering here for more than 180 sessions and over 2,000 original research presentations. Obviously, I cannot go to all of them – at any one time there are up […]